|Aquesta pàgina està discontinuada
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La croada de Richard Stallman pel programari lliure
Convertit a Texinfo per Christian Neukirchen
(1) Per més informació sobre el terme "hacker", vegeu la secció B. Hack, hackers i hacking.
(2) Realment, el poder de la GPL no és tan gran. D'acord amb la secció 10 de la Llicència Pública General de GNU, versió 2 (1991), la naturalesa vírica de la llicència depèn en gran mesura de la bona voluntat de la Free Software Foundation de considerar un programa com una derivació [treball derivat? derivative work] d'un altre, per no mencionar la llicència que la GPL reemplaçaria. Si vols incorporar fragments del programa en d'altres programes lliures amb condicions de distribució diferents, escriu a l'autor per demanar-li permís. Per al programari amb drets d'autor registrats per la Free Software Foundation, escriu a la Free Software Foundation; de vegades fem excepcions en això. La nostra decisió es basarà en els dos objectius de preservar l'estatus lliure de tots els derivats del nostre programari lliure i de promoure la compartició i reutilització del programari en general. "Comparar alguna cosa amb un virus és molt fort" diu Stallman. "Una planta enfiladissa és una comparació més adecuada, va a un altre lloc si tu n'agafes un esqueix i el quies". Per a més informació sobre la Llicència Pública General de GNU, visiteu .
(3) Vegeu Shubha Ghosh, "Revealing the Microsoft Windows Source Code", Gigalaw.com (gener del 2000). .
(4) Les "Killer apps" (aplicacions revolucionàries) no tenen perquè ser propietàries. Com testimonia, en efecte, el llegendari navegador Mosaic, un programa el "copyright" del qual permet derivacions no comercials amb certes restriccions. A més, i crec que el lector hi estarà d'acord: el mercat del programari és com la loteria. Com més gran és el premi, més gent hi vol participar. Per tenir un bon resum del fenomen de les "killer apps", vegeu "Whatever Happened to the `Killer App'?" de Philip Ben-David, e-Commerce News (7 de desembre de 2000) .
(5) Vegeu Craig Mundie, "The Commercial Software Model", vicepresident sènior de Microsoft Corp. Extret d'una transcripció en línia del discurs de Mundie a la Stern School of Business de la Universitat de Nova York, el 3 de maig de 2001 .
(6) Vegeu Craig Mundie, "The Commercial Software Model", vicepresident sènior de Microsoft Corp. Extret d'una transcripció en línia del discurs de Mundie a la Stern School of Business de la Universitat de Nova York, el 3 de maig de 2001 .
(7) L'acrònim GNU significa "GNU's not Unix" (GNU no és Unix, n. del t.). En un altre fragment de la conferència del 29 de maig de 2001, a la NYU, Stallman va resumir l'origen de l'acrònim:
Nosaltres, els hackers, sempre busquem noms divertits o entremaliats per a un programa, perquè posar el nom a un programa representa la meitat de la diversió del fet d'escriure'l. També tenim la tradició dels acrònims recursius per indicar que el programa que estàs escrivint és similar a algun altre ja existent... Vaig buscar un acrònim recursiu per "''Something Is Not Unix''" (Alguna cosa no és Unix, n. del t.). Vaig comprovar les 26 lletres i vaig descobrir que cap d'elles era una paraula. I vaig decidir fer una contracció. D'aquesta manera vaig poder obtenir un acrònim de tres lletres per "''Something Is Not UNIX''". Vaig comprovar les lletres i va resultar la paraula "GNU". I això és tot.
Tot i ser afeccionat als jocs de paraules, Stallman recomana als usuaris del programari pronunciar la "g" al principi de l'acrònim (p.e. "gah-new", pronunciat en anglès). Això no solament evitarà confusions amb la paraula "gnu" (nyu en anglès, n. del t.), l'antílop africà Connochaetes gnou, sinó que evitarà confusions amb l'adjectiu "new" ("novetat", també en anglès, n. del t.). "
Hi hem estat treballant des de fa 17 anys, per tant no és que sigui exactament 'nou'", diu Stallman.
Font: notes de l'autor i transcripció directe de la xerrada de Richard Stallman a la Universitat de Nova York, el 29 de maig de 2001 .
(8) Michael Gross, "Richard Stallman: High School Misfit, Symbol of Free Software, MacArthur-certified Genius" (1999). Aquesta entrevista és una de les entrevistes més sinceres que s'han enregistrat d'Stallman. Us la recomano .
(9) Michael Gross, "Richard Stallman: High School Misfit, Symbol of Free Software, MacArthur-certified Genius" (1999). Aquesta entrevista és una de les entrevistes més sinceres que s'han enregistrat d'Stallman. Us la recomano .
(10) Vegeu Judy Steed, Toronto Star, BUSINESS, (9 d'octubre de 2000): C03. La seva visió del programari lliure i la cooperació social mostra un gran contrast amb la naturalesa solitària de la seva vida privada. Judy Steed és una excèntrica semblant a Glenn Gould, el pianista canadenc també brillant, clar i solitari. Stallman es considera ell mateix afectat, en algun grau, per l'autisme: una condició que, diu, li fa difícil d'interaccionar amb la gent.
(11) See Steve Silberman, "The Geek Syndrome," Wired (December, 2001). http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/9.12/aspergers_pr.html (12)
Regrettably, I did not get a chance to interview Daniel Stallman for this book. During the early research for this book, Stallman informed me that his father suffered from Alzheimer's. When I resumed research in late 2001, I learned, sadly, that Daniel Stallman had died earlier in the year. (13)
Stallman, an atheist, would probably quibble with this description. Suffice it to say, it was something Stallman welcomed. See previous note 1: "As soon as I heard about computers, I wanted to see one and play with one." (14)
See Michael Gross, "Richard Stallman: High School Misfit, Symbol of Free Software, MacArthur-certified Genius" (1999). (15)
Carmine DeSapio holds the dubious distinction of being the first Italian-American boss of Tammany Hall, the New York City political machine. For more information on DeSapio and the politics of post-war New York, see John Davenport, "Skinning the Tiger: Carmine DeSapio and the End of the Tammany Era," New York Affairs (1975): 3:1. (16)
Chess, another Columbia Science Honors Program alum, describes the protests as "background noise." "We were all political," he says, "but the SHP was imporant. We would never have skipped it for a demonstration." (17)
See Steven Levy, Hackers (Penguin USA [paperback], 1984): 144. Levy devotes about five pages to describing Gosper's fascination with LIFE, a math-based software game first created by British mathematician John Conway. I heartily recommend this book as a supplement, perhaps even a prerequisite, to this one. (18)
Gerald Sussman, an MIT faculty member and hacker whose work at the AI Lab predates Stallman's, disputes this memory. According to Sussman, the hackers never broke any doors to retrieve terminals. (19)
I apologize for the whirlwind summary of ITS' genesis, an operating system many hackers still regard as the epitome of the hacker ethos. For more information on the program's political significance, see Simson Garfinkel, Architects of the Information Society: Thirty-Five Years of the Laboratory for Computer Science at MIT (MIT Press, 1999). (20)
I apologize for the whirlwind summary of ITS' genesis, an operating system many hackers still regard as the epitome of the hacker ethos. For more information on the program's political significance, see Simson Garfinkel, Architects of the Information Society: Thirty-Five Years of the Laboratory for Computer Science at MIT (MIT Press, 1999). (21)
See Richard Stallman, "RMS lecture at KTH (Sweden)," (October 30, 1986). http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/stallman-kth.html (22)
In an email shortly after this book went into its final edit cycle, Stallman says he drew political inspiration from the Harvard campus as well. "In my first year of Harvard, in a Chinese History class, I read the story of the first revolt against the Chin dynasty," he says. "The story is not reliable history, but it was very moving." (23)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (24)
See Steven Levy, Hackers (Penguin USA [paperback], 1984): 417. I have modified this quote, which Levy also uses as an excerpt, to illustrate more directly how the program might reveal the false security of the system. Levy uses the placeholder "[such and such]." (25)
See Steven Levy, Hackers (Penguin USA [paperback], 1984): 417. (26)
See Andrew Leonard, "The Saint of Free Software," Salon.com (August 1998). http://www.salon.com/21st/feature/1998/08/cov_31feature.html (27)
See Leander Kahney, "Linux's Forgotten Man," Wired News (March 5, 1999). 1294 (28)
See "Programmer on moral high ground; Free software is a moral issue for Richard Stallman believes in freedom and free software." London Guardian (November 6, 1999). These are just a small sampling of the religious comparisons. To date, the most extreme comparison has to go to Linus Torvalds, who, in his autobiography-see Linus Torvalds and David Diamond, Just For Fun: The Story of an Accidentaly Revolutionary (HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2001): 58--writes "Richard Stallman is the God of Free Software." Honorable mention goes to Larry Lessig, who, in a footnote description of Stallman in his book-see Larry Lessig, The Future of Ideas (Random House, 2001): 270--likens Stallman to Moses:
... as with Moses, it was another leader, Linus Torvalds, who finally carried the movement into the promised land by facilitating the development of the final part of the OS puzzle. Like Moses, too, Stallman is both respected and reviled by allies within the movement. He is [an] unforgiving, and hence for many inspiring, leader of a critically important aspect of modern culture. I have deep respect for the principle and commitment of this extraordinary individual, though I also have great respect for those who are courageous enough to question his thinking and then sustain his wrath.
In a final interview with Stallman, I asked him his thoughts about the religious comparisons. "Some people do compare me with an Old Testament prophent, and the reason is Old Testament prophets said certain social practices were wrong. They wouldn't compromise on moral issues. They couldn't be bought off, and they were usually treated with contempt." (29)
See Leander Kahney, "Linux's Forgotten Man," Wired News (March 5, 1999). 1294 (30)
At the time, I thought Stallman was referring to the flower's scientific name. Months later, I would learn that rhinophytophilia was in fact a humorous reference to the activity, i.e., Stallman sticking his nose into a flower and enjoying the moment. For another humorous Stallman flower incident, visit: http://www.stallman.org/texas.html (31)
Cecily Barnes and Scott Ard, "Court Grants Stay of Napster Injunction," News.com (July 28, 2000). http://news.cnet.com/news/0-1005-200-2376465.html (32)
See "A Clear Victory for Recording Industry in Napster Case," RIAA press release (February 12, 2001). http://www.riaa.com/PR_story.cfm?id=372 (33)
See Mae Ling Mak, "Mae Ling's Story" (December 17, 1998). http://www.crackmonkey.org/pipermail/crackmonkey/1998q4/003006.htm So far, Mak is the only person I've found willing to speak on the record in regard to this practice, although I've heard this from a few other female sources. Mak, despite expressing initial revulsion at it, later managed to put aside her misgivings and dance with Stallman at a 1999 LinuxWorld show. http://www.linux.com/interact/potd.phtml?potd_id=44 (34)
See Annalee Newitz, "If Code is Free Why Not Me?" Salon.com (May 26, 2000). http://www.salon.com/tech/feature/2000/05/26/free_love/print.html (35)
See Richard Stallman, "The GNU Operating System and the Free Software Movement," Open Sources (O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1999): 65. (36)
See Josh McHugh, "For the Love of Hacking," Forbes (August 10, 1998). http://www.forbes.com/forbes/1998/0810/6203094a.html (38)
See Stallman (1986). (39)
See Joseph Weizenbaum, Computer Power and Human Reason: From Judgment to Calculation (W. H. Freeman, 1976): 116. (40)
According to the Jargon File, TECO's name originally stood for Tape Editor and Corrector. http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/jargon/html/entry/TECO.html (41)
See Richard Stallman, "EMACS: The Extensible, Customizable, Display Editor," AI Lab Memo (1979). An updated HTML version of this memo, from which I am quoting, is available at http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/emacs-paper.html (42)
See Richard Stallman, "Emacs the Full Screen Editor" (1987). http://www.lysator.liu.se/history/garb/txt/87-1-emacs.txt (43)
See Richard Stallman, "Emacs the Full Screen Editor" (1987). http://www.lysator.liu.se/history/garb/txt/87-1-emacs.txt (44)
See Richard Stallman, "Emacs the Full Screen Editor" (1987). http://www.lysator.liu.se/history/garb/txt/87-1-emacs.txt (45)
See Richard Stallman, "Emacs the Full Screen Editor" (1987). http://www.lysator.liu.se/history/garb/txt/87-1-emacs.txt (46)
See Richard Stallman, "Emacs the Full Screen Editor" (1987). http://www.lysator.liu.se/history/garb/txt/87-1-emacs.txt (47)
See Stallman (1979): #SEC34. (48)
In a 1996 interview with online magazine MEME, Stallman cited Scribe's sale as irksome, but hesitated to mention Reid by name. "The problem was nobody censured or punished this student for what he did," Stallman said. "The result was other people got tempted to follow his example." See MEME 2.04. http://memex.org/meme2-04.html (49)
See Steven Levy, Hackers (Penguin USA [paperback], 1984): 419. (50)
See Steven Levy, Hackers (Penguin USA [paperback], 1984): 419. (51)
In writing this chapter, I've elected to focus more on the social significance of Emacs than the software significance. To read more about the software side, I recommend Stallman's 1979 memo. I particularly recommend the section titled "Research Through Development of Installed Tools" (#SEC27). Not only is it accessible to the nontechnical reader, it also sheds light on how closely intertwined Stallman's political philosophies are with his software-design philosophies. A sample excerpt follows:
EMACS could not have been reached by a process of careful design, because such processes arrive only at goals which are visible at the outset, and whose desirability is established on the bottom line at the outset. Neither I nor anyone else visualized an extensible editor until I had made one, nor appreciated its value until he had experienced it. EMACS exists because I felt free to make individually useful small improvements on a path whose end was not in sight.
See Richard Stallman, "Initial GNU Announcement" (September 1983). http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/gnu/initial-announcement.html (53)
See Richard Stallman, "Initial GNU Announcement" (September 1983). http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/gnu/initial-announcement.html (54)
See Richard Stallman, "Initial GNU Announcement" (September 1983). http://www.gnu.ai.mit.edu/gnu/initial-announcement.html (55)
See Marshall Kirk McKusick, "Twenty Years of Berkeley Unix," Open Sources (O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1999): 38. (56)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (57)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (58)
Multiple sources: see Richard Stallman interview, Gerald Sussman email, and Jargon File 3.0.0. http://www.clueless.com/jargon3.0.0/TWENEX.html (59)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (61)
See "MIT AI Lab Tourist Policy." http://catalog.com/hopkins/text/tourist-policy.html (62)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (63)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (64)
See H. P. Newquist, The Brain Makers: Genius, Ego, and Greed in the Quest for Machines that Think (Sams Publishing, 1994): 172. (65)
Ibid.: 196. (66)
Ibid. Newquist, who says this anecdote was confirmed by several Symbolics executives, writes, "The message caused a brief flurry of excitement and speculation on the part of Symbolics' employees, but ultimately, no one took Stallman's outburst that seriously." (67)
See Steven Levy, Hackers (Penguin USA [paperback], 1984): 426. (69)
See Bill Gates, "An Open Letter to Hobbyists" (February 3, 1976). To view an online copy of this letter, go to http://www.blinkenlights.com/classiccmp/gateswhine.html. (70)
See Richard Stallman, Open Sources (O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1999): 56. Stallman adds his own footnote to this statement, writing, "As an atheist, I don't follow any religious leaders, but I sometimes find I admire something one of them has said." (71)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (72)
See Richard Stallman (1986). (73)
See Richard Stallman, "The GNU Manifesto" (1985). http://www.gnu.org/manifesto.html (74)
See "Grateful Dead Time Capsule: 1985-1995 North American Tour Grosses." http://www.accessplace.com/gdtc/1197.htm (75)
See Evan Leibovitch, "Who's Afraid of Big Bad Wolves," ZDNet Tech Update (December 15, 2000). 14179 (76)
For narrative purposes, I have hesitated to go in-depth when describing Stallman's full definition of software "freedom." The GNU Project web site lists four fundamental components:
* The freedom to run a program, for any purpose (freedom 0). * The freedom to study how a program works, and adapt it to your needs (freedom 1). * The freedom to redistribute copies of a program so you can help your neighbor (freedom 2). * The freedom to improve the program, and release your improvements to the public, so that the whole community benefits (freedom 3).
For more information, please visit "The Free Software Definition" at http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.html. (77)
See Eric Raymond, "Shut Up and Show Them the Code," online essay, (June 28, 1999). (78)
See Eric Raymond, "Shut Up and Show Them the Code," online essay, (June 28, 1999). (79)
See "Guest Interview: Eric S. Raymond," Linux.com (May 18, 1999). http://www.linux.com/interviews/19990518/8/ (80)
See Hal Abelson, Mike Fischer, and Joanne Costello, "Software and Copyright Law," updated version (1998). http://www.swiss.ai.mit.edu/6805/articles/int-prop/software-copyright.html (81)
See Trn Kit README. http://www.za.debian.org/doc/trn/trn-readme (82)
See John Gilmore, quoted from email to author. (83)
See Richard Stallman, et al., ``GNU General Public License: Version 1, (February, 1989). http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/copying-1.0.html (84)
See David Betz and Jon Edwards, "Richard Stallman discusses his public-domain [sic] Unix-compatible software system with BYTE editors," BYTE (July, 1996). (Reprinted on the GNU Project web site: http://www.gnu.org/gnu/byte-interview.html.) This interview offers an interesting, not to mention candid, glimpse at Stallman's political attitudes during the earliest days of the GNU Project. It is also helpful in tracing the evolution of Stallman's rhetoric. Describing the purpose of the GPL, Stallman says, "I'm trying to change the way people approach knowledge and information in general. I think that to try to own knowledge, to try to control whether people are allowed to use it, or to try to stop other people from sharing it, is sabotage." Contrast this with a statement to the author in August 2000: "I urge you not to use the term `intellectual property' in your thinking. It will lead you to misunderstand things, because that term generalizes about copyrights, patents, and trademarks. And those things are so different in their effects that it is entirely foolish to try to talk about them at once. If you hear somebody saying something about intellectual property, without quotes, then he's not thinking very clearly and you shouldn't join." (85)
The University of California's "obnoxious advertising clause" would later prove to be a problem. Looking for a less restrictive alternative to the GPL, some hackers used the University of California, replacing "University of California" with the name of their own instution. The result: free software programs that borrowed from dozens of other programs would have to cite dozens of institutions in advertisements. In 1999, after a decade of lobbying on Stallman's part, the University of California agreed to drop this clause. See "The BSD License Problem" at http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/bsd.html. (86)
See Michael Tiemann, "Future of Cygnus Solutions: An Entrepreneur's Account," Open Sources (O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1999): 139. (87)
See Richard Stallman, BYTE (1986). (88)
See "HURD History." http://www.gnu.org/software/hurd/history.html (89)
According to a League of Programming Freedom Press, the protests were notable for featuring the first hexadecimal protest chant:
1-2-3-4, toss the lawyers out the door; 5-6-7-8, innovate don't litigate; 9-A-B-C, 1-2-3 is not for me; D-E-F-O, look and feel have got to go
I use the term "writing" here loosely. About the time of the MacArthur award, Stallman began suffering chronic pain in his hands and was dictating his work to FSF-employed typists. Although some have speculated that the hand pain was the result of repetitive stress injury, or RSI, an injury common among software programmers, Stallman is not 100% sure. "It was NOT carpal tunnel syndrome," he writes. "My hand problem was in the hands themselves, not in the wrists." Stallman has since learned to work without typists after switching to a keyboard with a lighter touch. (91)
See Reuven Lerner, "Stallman wins $240,000 MacArthur award," MIT, The Tech (July 18, 1990). http://the-tech.mit.edu/V110/N30/rms.30n.html (92)
See Michael Gross, "Richard Stallman: High School Misfit, Symbol of Free Software, MacArthur-certified Genius" (1999). (93)
See Linus Torvalds and David Diamond, Just For Fun: The Story of an Accidentaly Revolutionary (HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2001): 58-59. (94)
See Linus Torvalds and David Diamond, Just For Fun: The Story of an Accidentaly Revolutionary (HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2001): 78. (95)
See ``Linux 10th Anniversary. http://www.linux10.org/history/ (96)
See Linus Torvalds and David Diamond, Just For Fun: The Story of an Accidentaly Revolutionary (HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2001): 96-97. (97)
See Linus Torvalds and David Diamond, Just For Fun: The Story of an Accidentaly Revolutionary (HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2001): 94-95. (98)
See Robert Young, "Interview with Linus, the Author of Linux," Linux Journal (March 1, 1994). http://www.linuxjournal.com/article.php?sid=2736 (99)
See Linus Torvalds and David Diamond, Just For Fun: The Story of an Accidentaly Revolutionary (HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2001): 59. (100)
Torvalds has offered this quote in many different settings. To date, however, the quote's most notable appearance is in the Eric Raymond essay, "The Cathedral and the Bazaar" (May, 1997). http://www.tuxedo.org/~esr/writings/cathedral-bazaar/cathedral-bazaar/index.html (101)
See Simson Garfinkel, "Is Stallman Stalled?" Wired (March, 1993). (102)
Chassel's concern about there being a 36-month "window" for a new operating system is not unique to the GNU Project. During the early 1990s, free software versions of the Berkeley Software Distribution were held up by Unix System Laboratories' lawsuit restricting the release of BSD-derived software. While many users consider BSD offshoots such as FreeBSD and OpenBSD to be demonstrably superior to GNU/Linux both in terms of performance and security, the number of FreeBSD and OpenBSD users remains a fraction of the total GNU/Linux user population. To view a sample analysis of the relative success of GNU/Linux in relation to other free software operating systems, see the essay by New Zealand hacker, Liam Greenwood, "Why is Linux Successful" (1999). (103)
See Maui High Performance Computing Center Speech. (104)
GNU/Linux user-population numbers are sketchy at best, which is why I've provided such a broad range. The 100,000 total comes from the Red Hat "Milestones" site, http://www.redhat.com/about/corporate/milestones.html. (105)
I wrote this Winston Churchill analogy before Stallman himself sent me his own unsolicited comment on Churchill:
World War II and the determination needed to win it was a very strong memory as I was growing up. Statements such as Churchill's, "We will fight them in the landing zones, we will fight them on the beaches ... we will never surrender," have always resonated for me.
See Ian Murdock, "A Brief History of Debian," (January 6, 1994): Appendix A, "The Debian Manifesto." http://www.debian.org/doc/manuals/project-history/apA.html (107)
Jamie Zawinski, a former Lucid programmer who would go on to head the Mozilla development team, has a web site that documents the Lucid/GNU Emacs fork, titled, "The Lemacs/FSFmacs Schism." http://www.jwz.org/doc/lemacs.html (108)
Young uses the term "public domain" incorrectly here. Public domain means not protected by copyright. GPL-protected programs are by definition protected by copyright. (109)
This quote is taken from the much-publicized Torvalds-Tanenbaum "flame war" following the initial release of Linux. In the process of defending his choice of a nonportable monolithic kernel design, Torvalds says he started working on Linux as a way to learn more about his new 386 PC. "If the GNU kernel had been ready last spring, I'd not have bothered to even start my project." See Chris DiBona et al., Open Sources (O'Reilly & Associates, Inc., 1999): 224. (110)
See Peter Salus, "FYI-Conference on Freely Redistributable Software, 2/2, Cambridge" (1995) (archived by Terry Winograd). http://hci.stanford.edu/pcd-archives/pcd-fyi/1995/0078.html (111)
Although Linus Torvalds is Finnish, his mother tongue is Swedish. "The Rampantly Unofficial Linus FAQ" offers a brief explanation:
Finland has a significant (about 6%) Swedish-speaking minority population. They call themselves "finlandssvensk" or "finlandssvenskar" and consider themselves Finns; many of their families have lived in Finland for centuries. Swedish is one of Finland's two official languages.
Brooks' Law is the shorthand summary of the following quote taken from Brooks' book:
Since software construction is inherently a systems effort--an exercise in complex interrelationships-communication effort is great, and it quickly dominates the decrease in individual task time brought about by partitioning. Adding more men then lengthens, not shortens, the schedule.
See Fred P. Brooks, The Mythical Man-Month (Addison Wesley Publishing, 1995) (113)
See Eric Raymond, "The Cathredral and the Bazaar" (1997). (114)
See Malcolm Maclachlan, "Profit Motive Splits Open Source Movement," TechWeb News (August 26, 1998). http://content.techweb.com/wire/story/TWB19980824S0012 (115)
See Malcolm Maclachlan, "Profit Motive Splits Open Source Movement," TechWeb News (August 26, 1998). http://content.techweb.com/wire/story/TWB19980824S0012 (116)
See Bruce Perens et al., "The Open Source Definition," The Open Source Initiative (1998). http://www.opensource.org/docs/definition.html (117)
See Amy Harmon, "For Sale: Free Operating System," New York Times (September 28, 1998). http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/98/09/biztech/articles/28linux.html (118)
See John Markoff, "Apple Adopts `Open Source' for its Server Computers," New York Times (March 17, 1999). http://www.nytimes.com/library/tech/99/03/biztech/articles/17apple.html (119)
See Eric Raymond, "Surprised by Wealth," Linux Today (December 10, 1999). http://linuxtoday.com/news_story.php3?ltsn=1999-12-10-001-05-NW-LF (120)
See Steven Levy, Hackers (Penguin USA [paperback], 1984): 40. (121)
See Marco Boerries, interview with author (July, 2000). (122)
See "Safari Tech Books Online; Subscriber Agreement: Terms of Service." http://safari.oreilly.com/mainhlp.asp?help=service (123)
See "Safari Tech Books Online; Subscriber Agreement: Terms of Service." http://safari.oreilly.com/mainhlp.asp?help=service (124)
See "The Open Publication License: Draft v1.0" (June 8, 1999). http://opencontent.org/openpub/ (125)
See "The GNU Free Documentation License: Version 1.1" (March, 2000). http://www.gnu.org/copyleft/fdl.html (126)
Anybody willing to "port" this book over to Udanax, the free software version of Xanadu, will receive enthusiastic support from me. To find out more about this intriguing technology, visit http://www.udanax.com. (128)
Alas, I didn't find out about the Takeda Foundation's decision to award Stallman, along with Linus Torvalds and Ken Sakamura, with its first-ever award for "Techno-Entrepreneurial Achievement for Social/Economic Well-Being" until after Stallman had made the trip to Japan to accept the award. For more information about the award and its accompanying $1 million prize, visit the Takeda site, http://www.takeda-foundation.jp.
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